Roger Thayer Stone Center For Latin American Studies

Tulane University

Rules That Bind Us

By Ludovico Feoli

The standoff presently underway in Venezuela regarding the treatment of constitutional precepts in light of President Chavez’ illness poses a larger question for regional democracy and the rule of law: how much do rules bind us? The credibility of our laws hinges on the certainty that they will take precedent over individual whims and that, failing this they will be enforced by third parties. However, events underway suggest that the authorities entrusted with this responsibility may lack the necessary autonomy to carry it through, making the separation and balance of powers questionable. And Venezuela is not the only example. Honduras, El Salvador, and even Costa Rica have had recent constitutional crises that raised similar questions, although their resolutions varied.

Hugo Chávez, democratically elected by a significant majority of Venezuelans, was set to take power on January 10, 2013 but he lies ill in Havana and is unable to appear at his inauguration. While the Constitution establishes that in such circumstances the head of Congress should take over temporarily and, if the absence is permanent, call new elections, the Venezuelan Supreme Court of Justice interpreted that Chavez’ reelection established the “administrative continuity” of the Executive, rendering a new inauguration “unnecessary”. Hence, the Court effectively reinterpreted the election as a renewal of the previous administration, rather than the start of a new constitutional period. This brushes aside the question of whether the president’s absence is temporary or permanent. It also obviates due process, which first calls for the investiture of the president and then for the appointment of the cabinet. Rules do not seem to bind.

Last December, the Honduran Congress fired four of the five magistrates on its Constitutional Court. The proximate cause was a vote by the magistrates, which a congressional investigative commission decided was extemporaneous. However, critics argue that the magistrates were purged for their decisions, which being contrary to the interests of the executive angered the President and generated a reprisal. The removal, en masse, of Supreme Court justices because of the content of their decisions is a gross violation of the principle of separation of powers. Without respect, on the part of the Executive, for the principle of judicial autonomy, there is little hope for the rule of law. Rules do not seem to bind.

El Salvador suffered its own constitutional crisis last summer. Similarly to the Honduran case, Constitutional Court decisions angered political actors due to their effects on their interests. In the case of the Executive, a Court decision limited the use of unsupervised discretionary funds. In the case of political parties, another decision allowed candidates to run independently, weakening the authority of party structures. Political jockeying to control the balance of power in the Court led to a spate of nominations late in the congressional period that ended in April 2012. The Constitutional Court ruled these appointments unconstitutional on the basis that the law only allows each Congress the approval of a single set of justices per term. Rather than accepting the ruling, the majority coalition in Congress challenged it before the Central American Court of Justice, a body whose authority has long been subject to debate. The justices in question also sought to retain their seats, so that two groups of magistrates claimed to be the legitimate representatives of the Court, creating a situation of institutional uncertainty. The crisis was eventually resolved, fortunately, through political means, but not without damaging the credibility of democratic institutions. Neither Congress nor the questioned appointees were bound by the rules that make the Constitutional Court the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution.

A short-lived conflict also took place in Costa Rica during 2012 when legislators voted not to renew a Constitutional Court magistrate in his post. The act was not outside the purview of the legislature’s competence, although some procedural aspects remain open to question. What generated the crisis were remarks by some deputies that starkly showed the political intent of their decision. The legislature was seeking to “discipline” the Court, renowned for its activism, by signaling that it would punish those magistrates that refused to be compliant. Congressional representatives were not bound by the rules of judicial autonomy and the separation of powers. However, the outcry that emerged and the prompt resolution of the crisis drove the heads of the executive, legislative, and judiciary powers to issue a joint proclamation reaffirming the relevance of those very rules, reminding everyone of the principle that rules should bind us.

These examples show that formal rules are not enough in our region’s progress towards democracy. They must be subject to credible enforcement and they must be accepted and internalized by political actors.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  • Ludovico Feoli

    Executive Director - Center for Inter-American Policy & Research

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John Edward Heaton's Guatemala: A Photographic Exhibit

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John Edward Heaton’s Guatemala, a photographic exhibit will be on display at The Latin American Library, Tulane University, March 17-May 27.
We are honored to be the first venue in North America to show this exhibit, which debuted in the fall of 2015 in Paris at the Maison Européene de la Photographie, Paris’ main museum for photography.
John Edward Heaton’s work documents the fascinating worlds of Guatemala. He has spent 35 years immersed as aphotographer, environmentalist, visual anthropologist, cultural entrepreneur, and curious witness to this Central American nation, among the most historically rich and complex nations of Latin America. Occupying the space between historical documentary and fine art, Heaton’s stunning photographs capture the ironies and poignancy of Guatemala and its people with a penetrating gaze that is nonetheless thoroughly engaged, sympathetic and not without a good dose of humor. The Latin American Library was one of the first to collect Heaton’s published work in 2011. Recognizing and acquiring historically important publications in a timely way allows us to bring to the Tulane campus exhibitions like Heaton’s that usually tour only at large museums.

A night of Argentinian food and culture with Chef Adolfo Garcia

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Delgado Community College Culinary Arts and Tulane Stone Center for Latin American Studies invite you to a night of Argentinian food and culture with Chef Adolfo Garcia. Cooking Demonstration and Tasting.

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Empanadas Argentinas (Seasoned beef hand pies)
Noqul (Handmade potato dumplings with Pancetta cream and peas)
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The Stone Center is a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center on Latin America.

Somos Nós: Diverse Brazil, Brazilian Culture and Language for the K-16 Classroom

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Photo taken by Megan Oleson, 2014.

LARC, along with Vanderbilt and the University of Georgia, is sponsoring a workshop on Brazilian culture and teaching Portuguese. K-16 educators of any discipline and grade-level are welcome to apply to attend this 5 day institute. Throughout the week, educators will work to develop interdisciplinary curricula, which they can bring back to their schools to teach and share with colleagues. This program is sponsored by Vanderbilt University, Tulane University and the University of Georgia through a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource grant.

Please visit the registration page to register and for more information. Also, check out these photos from last year’s workshop held in New Orleans.

Summer Educator Institute in Cuba

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Havana, Cuba | June 18 – July 2, 2016

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This two-week program provides the unique opportunity to work on developing lesson plans while exploring the sights and sounds of a nation and country that remain obscured behind political rhetoric and misinformation. Recent economic changes on the island have provoked a series of social and cultural transformations that have left Cubans and the entire world wondering what could be next for the island and the Revolution. Don’t miss the chance to witness some of these challenges and triumphs firsthand and get the opportunity to bring your experience back to your students in the classroom.

Tulane’s summer program is locally sponsored and supported by the National Union of Writers and Artists. Participants will stay within walking distance of the Malecón, the university, and several cultural venues. In addition to field trips in Havana, there will also be group excursions to the historic cities of Trinidad and Cienfuegos, the Che Guevara monument in Santa Clara, Playa Girón, and Viñales.

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