Roger Thayer Stone Center For Latin American Studies

Tulane University

School Vouchers: What Louisiana can Learn from Chile

By Ludovico Feoli

In light of Governor Jindal’s proposal to vastly expand Louisiana’s school voucher system it might be useful to consider the track record of similar programs elsewhere. To that effect, Chile’s experience might be informative. Starting in the 1980s that country implemented the world’s farthest reaching neoliberal reform of education. The Pinochet regime intended to revolutionize vast spheres of Chilean society by replacing professional and bureaucratic organization with market forces. In a nutshell, the logic behind educational choice was that the freedom of voucher-bearing parents to select schools would create competitive forces, generating incentives for schools to improve their performance, reduce their costs, and introduce greater innovation. Did it work?

While the evidence is complex, analysts suggest that “The Chilean reforms of the 1980s were not practicable, did not turn education upside down, and did not dramatically improve school performance” (Gauri 1998, 103). The reforms did not reduce inequalities in education: most poor children attend public schools, which have lower performance than private schools and are more poorly funded, due to their inability to charge tuition or surcharges, both of which are open to their private counterparts (Levin 2011, 74; Economist 2011). The reforms did not improve performance either. While standardized scores have improved in Chile over time, it is more likely to have been as a result of improvement efforts spearheaded by the Ministry of Education, not market forces. Scores are better in Chile than they are in other Latin American countries, but they are well below the OECD average and show high variability relative to student background. In fact, what vouchers do seem to have accomplished is a redistribution of pupils with better-educated parents from public to private schools. And while private subsidized schools seem to have lower costs than the public schools, this may be due to their free riding on the public education system—by not taking special needs students, and by hiring teachers already employed in nearby public schools as part-time faculty (Carnoy 1998). The prolonged student protests that have paralyzed the country in past months are testament to a widespread discontent with the educational system.

While it is clear that there are many institutional and even cultural differences between the education systems in the United States and Chile, these results should at the very least call for caution. As Gauri (1998) suggests, there are several lessons that can be drawn from this experience for a broader context. First, it is illusory to believe that markets will replace bureaucrats. To be sure, bureaucracies tend towards hypertrophy and can be paragons of inefficiency. But markets are also plagued by imperfections, like asymmetries of information, which allow parents that are better informed about school quality and performance, usually the more affluent, to reap greater rewards from the voucher system. Leveling the playing field by evaluating and disseminating educational achievement, and keeping schools financially accountable, requires increased regulation and state intervention. This points to an ironic paradox inherent in such market liberalizing reforms.

Second, markets are not immune to politics. If vouchers lead students away from existent public schools their remaining constituents—teachers, parents, staff, students, neighbors—will resist closures, creating political unrest and impeding cost reductions. Moreover, the complexity of educational reform is such that policies cannot be imposed by fiat. Not even the Pinochet regime could override longstanding traditions tied to the influence of teachers. There is no universal model that fits the needs of every community. Parents differ in their priorities and they are often willing to trade other aspects, like safety, convenience, day care, and instruction in religious or moral codes, for some degree of academic achievement or educational innovation (Gauri 1998, 105). Deliberation and consensus building are crucial for the success of educational policy.

While the Louisiana voucher expansion has been presented as a ticket for children to escape from failing public schools, the Chilean precedent warns against expecting this to emerge solely from market forces. Unfortunately, this expectation seems to be at the heart of the proposal given its broad eligibility requirements for students and its lax eligibility requirements for schools. Under the proposed rules students in more than 70% of Louisiana’s schools (55% of the public school students) would be eligible for vouchers (BGR 2012). At the same time, virtually all private schools meeting minimal requirements for operation could accept them. What is to prevent a student from entering a worse private school than the public one she is exiting? In the absence of regulations the assumption must be that the demand for quality education will draw parents to the best performing schools. Yet, this in turn assumes the existence of perfect information—available, intelligible, and unambiguous—which the new legislation makes no effort to impose. As the case of Chile exemplifies, an active administration is inevitable: to assure vouchers go only to those students who need them; to control that only highly qualified private schools can accept those students; to measure educational achievement in schools and to make the results widely available to parents; and to keep schools accountable for their educational and financial results over time.

The Chilean case, where tuition vouchers have been more extensively tried than anywhere, shows that private schools are not necessarily better than public ones, and that competition between public and private schools will not necessarily raise the quality of education or reduce its costs. “For those concerned with the quality and cost of education in the United States, the answers lie elsewhere” (Carnoy 1998).
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BGR. Making Choice Right: Can Private School Vouchers Live Up to Their Promises? (March 2012).
Carnoy, Martin. “Do Vouchers Improve Education?” Dollars & Sense, no. 216 (1998): 24-27.
Gauri, Varun. School Choice in Chile: Two Decades of Educational Reform. Pitt Latin American Series. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.
Levin, Ben. “Chile, Latin America, and Inequality in Education.” Phi Delta Kappan 93, no. 2 (2011): 74-75.
“We Want the World; Education in Chile.” The Economist 400, no. 8746 (2011): 36.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  • Ludovico Feoli

    Executive Director - Center for Inter-American Policy & Research

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¡Viva Cuba! Now what?

The Cuban and Caribbean Studies Institute presents a round table discussion on the restoration of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba, and what it may mean for life on the island. Panelists include Tulane students and faculty.

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Mobilizing at the Margins: Citizenship, Identity, and Democracy

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Tulane University's Latin American Graduate Organization invites your attendance at the 2015 Graduate Conference where you can meet graduate scholars, faculty, and community leaders interested in Latin America, explore the city, and experience the unique Mardi Gras season in New Orleans!

This year's conference encourages participants to engage with historical and emerging confrontations and reconfigurations of national identification, expressions of individual or communal identity, performances of citizenship, and re-imaginings of democracy within the context of Latin America. Latin America and the Caribbean encompass vast cultural, linguistic, and geographic diversity, making the region a subject of prolific scholarly study across disciplines. Within this complexity, conceptualizations of citizenship, identity, and democracy are constantly being negotiated, contested, and reframed in a multitude of contexts. These various encounters highlight the ways in which individuals interact with their communities, how communities define themselves within and/or beyond the framework of national borders, and how power and politics play out in an increasingly interconnected and decentralized global community.

Our keynote speaker this year will be Dr. Lara Putnam. Lara Putnam is Professor and Chair of the Department of History at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research has explored labor migration; state racism; and the ways kinship, gender, and sexuality both shape and are shaped by large-scale political and economic shifts. Publications include Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age (UNC Press, 2013), The Company They Kept: Migrants and the Politics of Gender in Caribbean Costa Rica, 1870-1960 (UNC Press, 2002), and recent articles in Modernism/Modernities, International Labor and Working-Class History, the Journal of British Studies, and Small Axe. Work in progress uses examples from the history of Venezuela, Trinidad, and Grenada to explore methodological and theoretical dilemmas within history's transnational and digital "turns."

Photographic Exhibit: "Mexico, World Heritage Cities"

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The Consulate of Mexico in New Orleans is pleased to present the photographic exhibit “Mexico, World Heritage Cities” from January 22 to February 15, 2015. An opening reception will be held on January 22nd at 6 PM.

To date 721 sites worldwide have been listed as World Heritage sites including 167 cities. Of these cities, 10 of them are located in Mexico. The cities were chosen due to their historic, architectural, and urban importance. They include Campeche, Guanajuato, Morelia, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Miguel, Zacatecas, and Mexico City.

Summer in Argentina Program Info Session

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TULANE SUMMER IN ARGENTINA PROGRAM
JUNE 14 – JULY 17, 2015
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Summer in Argentina is a Tulane-run five-week program in Buenos Aires, Argentina, that offers six credits of courses in Spanish and Political Science. It’s ideal for students who want to have an experience abroad and strengthen their Spanish skills, but cannot commit to a semester-long program. It’s also an outstanding opportunity for anything who wants to have a rich experience in one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world.

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A representative from the Stone Center for Latin American Studies will also be present, so bring all of your questions.

Wednesday, February 25
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100A Jones Hall, Greenleaf Conference Room

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Congreso internacional de literatura y cultura centroamericanas (CILCA XXIII)

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Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, y Purdue University Calumet tienen el gusto de invitar al CONGRESO DE LITERATURA y CULTURA CENTROAMERICANAS (CILCA XXIII) que se llevará a cabo en la ciudad de New Orleans, Louisiana, del 11 al 13 de marzo del 2015 en el campus de Tulane University y Loyola University New Orleans.

Desde el primer congreso realizado en Nicaragua 1993, CILCA se ha caracterizado por ser un espacio de intercambio intelectual y de amistad para académicas/os, escritoras/es y lectoras/es. El congreso se ha efectuado en todos los países centroamericanos y por primera vez en su historia, CILCA se realizará en los Estados Unidos. La ciudad escogida es Nueva Orleáns, puerta de entrada hacia el Caribe y los países de América Central. El intercambio cultural entre Nueva Orleáns y América Central ha sido intenso por muchísimos años, y la ciudad alberga una de las comunidades de origen hondureño más grandes de los Estados Unidos. Tulane University tiene estrechos lazos con la región a través del Stone Center for Latin American Studies, the Latin American Library, y the Middle American Research Institute. Loyola University New Orleans se ha distinguido por el trabajo con las comunidades hispanas que realizan varias de sus unidades académicas, incluyendo the Law School y el Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

La organización de CILCA XXIII la realizan la Dra. Maureen Shea y el Dr. Uriel Quesada, expertos en literatura y cultura centroamericanas, con el apoyo del Dr. Jorge Román Lagunas, creador y promotor de CILCA.

Ud. puede ver La convocatoria aquí

Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, and Purdue University Calumet invite you to the Congress on Literature and Culture of Central America (CILCA XXIII) which will take place in New Orleans, Louisiana March 11-13 2015 on the campuses of Tulane and Loyola New Orleans.

From the first conference, held in Nicaragua in 1993, CILCA has been a space for intellectual exchange and friendship for academics and writers. The conference has been held in all of the Central American countries and for the first time in its history will be held in the United States. New Orleans, the gateway to the Caribbean and Central America, has been chosen as the location. New Orleans and Central America have a longstanding cultural exchange and New Orleans has one of the largest Honduran communities in the United States. Tulane has long connections with the region through the Stone Center for Latin American Studies, the Latin American Library, and the Middle American Research Institute. Loyola New Orleans works closely with hispanic communities particularly through the Law school and the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

CILCA XXIII is organized by Drs. Maureen Shea and Uriel Quesada, experts on the literature and culture of Central America, with the support of Dr. Jorge Román Lagunas, creator of CILCA.

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Registration prices are listed below:

Early Registration (BEFORE January 15, 2015):

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  • $140.00 Latin American academics traveling from Latin America; graduate students in the U.S.
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2015 Maya Symposium Teacher Workshop

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The Stone Center for Latin American Studies, in collaboration with the Middle American Research Institute, and the Consulate of Mexico in New Orleans, will present a teacher workshop in conjunction with the 12th Annual Tulane Maya Symposium, Royal Chambers Unsealed: Tombs of the Classic Maya.

This year the workshop will be held at the Consulate of Mexico, in conjunction with an exhibit of the works of Jay A. Frogel entitled “Maya Ruins and the Passage of Time: The Stephens and Catherwood Project.” Frogel mixes Frederick Catherwood drawings of ancient Maya sites with contemporary photographs to show the passage of time in these sites. The workshop will discuss basic information about the Maya, early explorers of the Maya area, and tips for teaching about the Maya in a global classroom.

The workshop will be held on Friday, March 20th, with a reception and viewing of the exhibit “Maya Ruins and the Passage of Time: The Stephens and Catherwood Project” on Thursday evening.

Thursday Evening Reception
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Consulate of Mexico in New Orleans
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Friday Teacher Workshop
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Consulate of Mexico in New Orleans
9 AM – 2 PM

More details on the workshop schedule will follow shortly.

To register for the workshop, please visit the symposium page