Roger Thayer Stone Center For Latin American Studies

Tulane University

School Vouchers: What Louisiana can Learn from Chile

By Ludovico Feoli

In light of Governor Jindal’s proposal to vastly expand Louisiana’s school voucher system it might be useful to consider the track record of similar programs elsewhere. To that effect, Chile’s experience might be informative. Starting in the 1980s that country implemented the world’s farthest reaching neoliberal reform of education. The Pinochet regime intended to revolutionize vast spheres of Chilean society by replacing professional and bureaucratic organization with market forces. In a nutshell, the logic behind educational choice was that the freedom of voucher-bearing parents to select schools would create competitive forces, generating incentives for schools to improve their performance, reduce their costs, and introduce greater innovation. Did it work?

While the evidence is complex, analysts suggest that “The Chilean reforms of the 1980s were not practicable, did not turn education upside down, and did not dramatically improve school performance” (Gauri 1998, 103). The reforms did not reduce inequalities in education: most poor children attend public schools, which have lower performance than private schools and are more poorly funded, due to their inability to charge tuition or surcharges, both of which are open to their private counterparts (Levin 2011, 74; Economist 2011). The reforms did not improve performance either. While standardized scores have improved in Chile over time, it is more likely to have been as a result of improvement efforts spearheaded by the Ministry of Education, not market forces. Scores are better in Chile than they are in other Latin American countries, but they are well below the OECD average and show high variability relative to student background. In fact, what vouchers do seem to have accomplished is a redistribution of pupils with better-educated parents from public to private schools. And while private subsidized schools seem to have lower costs than the public schools, this may be due to their free riding on the public education system–by not taking special needs students, and by hiring teachers already employed in nearby public schools as part-time faculty (Carnoy 1998). The prolonged student protests that have paralyzed the country in past months are testament to a widespread discontent with the educational system.

While it is clear that there are many institutional and even cultural differences between the education systems in the United States and Chile, these results should at the very least call for caution. As Gauri (1998) suggests, there are several lessons that can be drawn from this experience for a broader context. First, it is illusory to believe that markets will replace bureaucrats. To be sure, bureaucracies tend towards hypertrophy and can be paragons of inefficiency. But markets are also plagued by imperfections, like asymmetries of information, which allow parents that are better informed about school quality and performance, usually the more affluent, to reap greater rewards from the voucher system. Leveling the playing field by evaluating and disseminating educational achievement, and keeping schools financially accountable, requires increased regulation and state intervention. This points to an ironic paradox inherent in such market liberalizing reforms.

Second, markets are not immune to politics. If vouchers lead students away from existent public schools their remaining constituents–teachers, parents, staff, students, neighbors–will resist closures, creating political unrest and impeding cost reductions. Moreover, the complexity of educational reform is such that policies cannot be imposed by fiat. Not even the Pinochet regime could override longstanding traditions tied to the influence of teachers. There is no universal model that fits the needs of every community. Parents differ in their priorities and they are often willing to trade other aspects, like safety, convenience, day care, and instruction in religious or moral codes, for some degree of academic achievement or educational innovation (Gauri 1998, 105). Deliberation and consensus building are crucial for the success of educational policy.

While the Louisiana voucher expansion has been presented as a ticket for children to escape from failing public schools, the Chilean precedent warns against expecting this to emerge solely from market forces. Unfortunately, this expectation seems to be at the heart of the proposal given its broad eligibility requirements for students and its lax eligibility requirements for schools. Under the proposed rules students in more than 70% of Louisiana’s schools (55% of the public school students) would be eligible for vouchers (BGR 2012). At the same time, virtually all private schools meeting minimal requirements for operation could accept them. What is to prevent a student from entering a worse private school than the public one she is exiting? In the absence of regulations the assumption must be that the demand for quality education will draw parents to the best performing schools. Yet, this in turn assumes the existence of perfect information–available, intelligible, and unambiguous—which the new legislation makes no effort to impose. As the case of Chile exemplifies, an active administration is inevitable: to assure vouchers go only to those students who need them; to control that only highly qualified private schools can accept those students; to measure educational achievement in schools and to make the results widely available to parents; and to keep schools accountable for their educational and financial results over time.

The Chilean case, where tuition vouchers have been more extensively tried than anywhere, shows that private schools are not necessarily better than public ones, and that competition between public and private schools will not necessarily raise the quality of education or reduce its costs. “For those concerned with the quality and cost of education in the United States, the answers lie elsewhere” (Carnoy 1998).
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BGR. Making Choice Right: Can Private School Vouchers Live Up to Their Promises? (March 2012).
Carnoy, Martin. “Do Vouchers Improve Education?” Dollars & Sense, no. 216 (1998): 24-27.
Gauri, Varun. School Choice in Chile: Two Decades of Educational Reform. Pitt Latin American Series. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.
Levin, Ben. “Chile, Latin America, and Inequality in Education.” Phi Delta Kappan 93, no. 2 (2011): 74-75.
“We Want the World; Education in Chile.” The Economist 400, no. 8746 (2011): 36.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  • Ludovico Feoli

    Executive Director - Center for Inter-American Policy & Research

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The Congress of Day Laborers, an organization of immigrant workers and families founded by the day laborers who helped rebuild New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, is a leadership pipeline for hundreds of members into public life and social movement participation. A panel of immigrant leaders from Congreso will share how they have formed alliances across the community and influenced elected officials, as well as how students can help build a more tolerant society.

For more information please email Kate Rose (Vice President, BridgeTulane) at krose4@tulane.edu.

This event is sponsored by BridgeTulane, the Payson Graduate Program, the Stone Center for Latin American Studies, the Department of Anthropology and the New Orleans Workers’ Center for Racial Justice.

Newcomb Art Museum to host Archivist Panel for installation EMPIRE

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On Wednesday, April 25, join the Newcomb Art Museum for an incredible panel, moderated by Rebecca Snedeker, with the archivists of the various collections across Tulane as they discuss their responsibilities as cultural curators and the role od archives on campus.

In celebration of the New Orleans Tri-centennial, Newcomb Art Museum has on display an exhibit entitled EMPIRE, an immersive art installation by Los Angeles-based artists Fallen Fruit, from April 13, 2018 to July 7, 2018 on Tulane University’s uptown campus.

In EMPIRE, Fallen Fruit intentionally includes historical records, ephemeral artifacts, artworks and objects culled from various archives across Tulane’s campus and recontextualizes them in the museum. The archives include those from the Amistad Research Center, Hogan Jazz Archive, the Latin American Library, Louisiana Research Collection, Tulane Law Library, Tulane University Archives, Middle American Research Institute, Newcomb Art Museum, Newcomb College Institute, Royal D. Suttkus Fish Collection/Tulane University Biodiversity Research Institute and Southeastern Architectural Archive.

This panel is free and open to the public.

Featuring

Kara Olidge, Executive Director
Amistad Research Assistant

Alaina Hébert, Associate Curator of Graphics
Hogan Jazz Archive

Leon Miller, Head of the Louisiana Research Collection

Caroline Parris, Collections Manager
Middle American Research Institute

Sierra Polisar, Art Collections Manager & Registrar
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Royal D. Suttkus Fish Collection
Tulane University Biodiversity Research Institute

Kevin Williams, Archivist
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Ann Case, University Archivist
Howard-Tilton Memorial Library Tulane University Archives

Learn more about the installation by visiting the Newcomb Art Museum’s website. The exhibition has also been featured in the Tulane Hullabaloo and Tulane New Wave.

Chantalle Verna to Present Research on U.S. and Haitian Relationships in Post-Occupation Haiti

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Join us at the Stone Center for Latin American Studies in welcoming Dr. Chantalle Verna for a talk on her book Haiti and the Uses of America: Post- U.S. Occupation Promises on April 26, 2018, at 6:00 PM.

In her book, Dr. Verna makes evident that there have been key moments of cooperation that contributed to nation-building in both countries. Dr. Verna emphasizes the importance of examining the post-occupation period: the decades that followed the U.S. military occupation of Haiti (1915-34) and considering how Haiti’s public officials and privileged citizens rationalized nurturing ties with the United States at the very moment when the two nations began negotiating the reinstatement of Haitian sovereignty in 1930. Their efforts, Dr. Verna shows, helped favorable ideas about the United States, once held by a small segment of Haitian society, circulate more widely. In this way, Haitians contributed to and capitalized upon the spread of internationalism in the Americas and the larger world.

Dr. Verna received her Ph.D. from Michigan State University and is currently a professor in the History Department in Florida International University’s School of International and Public Affairs. Dr. Verna focuses on the culture of foreign relations, specifically concerning Haiti and the United States during the mid-twentieth century.

Co-sponsored by: Department of History, Graduate Studies Student Association, Newcomb College Institute and XUTULAC (the Xavier and Tulane Latin American & Caribbean Studies Partnership).

Fridays at Newcomb to host Sabia McCoy-Torres for talk on the anthropology of dance

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Join us in welcoming Sabia McCoy-Torres who will present on her research in a talk titled, Shifting the Lens from Harm to Pleasure: What We Learn from Women in Dancehall. Sabia McCoy-Torres is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Africana Studies at Tulane University. She has a Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology from Cornell University. Her research focuses on the English and Spanish speaking African Diaspora, race, gender, sexuality, transnationalism, and popular music and performance. Geographically, her work is based primarily in the United States and Coast Rica. Dr. McCoy-Torres’s work has been published in Transforming Anthropology and Black Music Research Journal.

The lecture includes a free lunch and is open to the public.

Bate Papo! Practice your Portuguese and enjoy some Brazilian treats: caipirão

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Bate Papo! Celebrate the end of the semester with a caipirão happy hour at the local watering hole. We’ll meet outside and quench our thirst while cramming for an exam or two or simply procrastinating. This event is sponsored by TULASO and the Stone Center for Latin American Studies. Admission is free. All levels welcome. For more information, please contact Megwen at mloveles@tulane.edu.

Decoding the Purity of an Icon

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Join us for paintings and installations by Mexican artist Belinda Flores-Shinshillas in collaboration with the New Orleans Hispanic Heritage Foundation and the Stone Center for Latin American Studies this March.

The Webster’s dictionary defines purity as “being free from or unmixed with any other matter.” Decoding the Purity of an Icon is a series of 10 oil female portrait paintings on canvas and 2 installations thought by Flores-Shinshillas to convey the message of recording an individual’s appearance and personality, using the tradition of iconography for veneration of purity and spirituality beyond the representation of the feminine subject. These works of art have been approached in a contemporary manner, making these portraits much more than pure representation.